Health Research Program of the Hungarian Charity Service of the Order of Malta




Publishing policy

In most cases, our research projects are unique regarding the health issues of people experiencing homelessness. It is highly important for us that our publications are open-access so all of our scientific papers are available in full text in order to support those colleagues who are interested in the adaptation of our results. We are also sharing our best practices in these publications.


N Radó, S Békási, Z Győrffy


Background Although the effects of digital health are receiving wide scientific attention, very little is known about the characteristics of digitally engaged people experiencing homelessness, especially in Central and Eastern Europe. Our previous research revealed a considerable level of internet use in the homeless population of Budapest, Hungary, for general purposes (350/662, 52.9%) and medical purposes (229/664, 34.6%). Moreover, a digitally engaged subgroup was identified (129/662, 19.5%).

Objective The aim of this exploratory study was to map out the resources, attitudes, and behaviors of digitally engaged homeless individuals in relation to digital technology to set the basis for potential health policy interventions, which will enable better access to health services through strengthening of the digital components of the existing health care system.

Methods Between August 18, 2022, and October 27, 2022, a total of 12 in-depth semistructured interviews were conducted in 4 homeless shelters in Budapest, Hungary. Upon analysis by 3 independent evaluators, 2 interviews were excluded. The interviewees were chosen based on purposive sampling with predefined inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis of the transcripts was conducted.

Results In the thematic analysis, 4 main themes (attitude, access, usage patterns, and solutions for usage problems) emerged. Health-related technology use mostly appeared in health information–seeking behavior. Online search for prescribed medications (5 interviews), active ingredients of medications (4 interviews), medicinal herbs believed to replace certain pills (2 interviews) or foods, and natural materials (1 interview) were mentioned. Moreover, mobile health app use (3 interviews) was reported. The intention to circumvent or check on mainstream health care solutions was mainly associated with previous negative experiences in the health care system. Several gaps in the daily use of technology were identified by the interviewees; however, more than half of the interviewees (6/10) turned out to be contact points for their peers for digital problem-solving or basic digital literacy skill enhancement in the homeless shelters. Furthermore, a lack of institutional support or special programs targeting senior clients was noted.

Conclusions Digitally engaged homeless individuals might become mediators between their peers and comprehensive digital health programs. They have the trust of their peers, can recognize and harness the benefits of digital technology, and are able to provide meaningful help in technology- and usage-related issues through experience. Digital health services have great promise in community shelters for managing and preventing health issues, and digitally engaged individuals might be important for the success of such services.


Z Győrffy, B Döbrössy, N Radó, J Boros, S Békási


Digital health solutions could alleviate the needs of vulnerable populations in the recent period of the permacrisis, however, there are several barriers that limit their use for certain individuals. We use the four-pillar model of the novel concept of techquity to provide original evidence of the discrepancy in the willingness to try and the ability to harness healthtech in Hungary. We identified three underserved segments of society: older adults, people with long-term activity-limiting conditions, and people experiencing homelessness who could greatly benefit from digital technologies and yet use them less than the general population. We also discuss potential strategic considerations in order to promote techquity and digital inclusion among people living in vulnerable situations.


S Békási, E Girasek, Z Győrffy


Background Digital health has expanded during the COVID-19 pandemic, while the exclusion of vulnerable populations with limited access to these technologies widens the gap to receive proper care. There is very little data available on the feasibility of telemedicine solutions regarding the chronic care of homeless persons.

Methods In our study, 75 participants experiencing homelessness were recruited from four social institutions in Budapest, Hungary. The telecare pilot service consisted of six online consultations with a physician and was available in shelters biweekly. Self-developed questionnaires were used after every online session on the originating and remote sites as well, while a follow-up study was also completed among patients after four to six months of pilot closure. Parameters as frequencies, averages, and percentage distributions were analyzed and two linear regression models were built on explaining the doctors’ and patients’ overall rating of visits.

Results During the pilot, 92.2% (n = 415) of originally planned visits were delivered and 55 clients (73.3%) attended the full program. Both the patients’ and physicians’ overall satisfaction was very high (4.52 and 4.79, respectively, on a 5-point Likert scale) and the patients’ overall rating remained similarly high during the follow-up. Comparing the first and sixth visits, physicians reported significant improvements in almost all aspects. The linear regression models proved that confidence in the patients’ assessment and diagnosis had the most prominent effect on the physicians’ overall rating, while ease of use and lack of communication gaps influenced positively the patients’ rating.

Conclusion The results suggest that telehealth services represent a promising tool to ensure better care continuity while using shelter infrastructure and on-site assistance might reduce the digital exclusion of people experiencing homelessness.

N Radó, E Girasek, S Békási, Z Győrffy


Background In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of digital technology for personal health and well-being. Previous research has revealed that these technologies might provide vulnerable populations, including those who are homeless, better access to health services and thus a greater chance of more personalized care.

Objective However, little is known about the relationship between technology and health among people experiencing homelessness in Central and Eastern Europe. This study is part of a series of studies by the Digital Health Research Group at Semmelweis University (Budapest, Hungary) in cooperation with the Hungarian Charity Service of the Order of Malta; it aims to assess the existing technological resources available for the homeless population and their health-related internet use characteristics to set the ground for potential health policy interventions, enabling better access to health services by strengthening the digital components of the existing health care system.

Methods Between April 19, 2021, and August 11, 2021, a total of 662 people from 28 institutions providing social services for people experiencing homelessness in Budapest, Hungary, were surveyed about their access to digital tools and internet use patterns. For selected questions, the responses of a representative sample of the Hungarian population were used for comparison as the reference group. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify variables affecting internet use for health-related reasons.

Results The results demonstrated a considerable level of internet use in the homeless population; 52.9% (350/662) of the respondents used the internet frequently compared with 81.3% (1220/1500) of the respondents in the reference group. Among the homeless group, 69.6% (461/662) of the respondents reported mobile phone ownership, and 39.9% (264/662) of the respondents added that it had a smartphone function. Moreover, 11.2% (70/662) of the respondents had already used a health mobile app, and 34.6% (229/662) of the respondents had used the internet for medical purposes. On the basis of these characteristics, we were able to identify a broadly defined, digitally engaged group among people experiencing homelessness (129/662, 19.5%). This subpopulation was inclined to benefit from digitalization related to their personal health. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that internet use for health reasons was more significant for younger respondents, women, those with higher levels of education, and those with no chronic conditions.

Conclusions Although compared with the general population, health-related internet use statistics are lower, our results show that the idea of involving homeless populations in the digital health ecosystem is viable, especially if barriers to access are systematically reduced. The results show that digital health services have great promise as another tool in the hands of community shelters for keeping homeless populations well ingrained in the social infrastructure as well as for disease prevention purposes.

Z Győrffy, S Békási, B Döbrössy, VK Bognár, N Radó, E Morva, S Zsigri, P Tari, E Girasek


Background With the expansion of digital health, it is imperative to consider intervention techniques in order not to be the cause of even more social health inequalities in underserved populations struggling with chronic diseases. Telemedicine solutions for homeless persons might compensate for shortcomings in access to valuable health services in different settings. The main aim of our research was to examine the attitudes and openness of homeless persons regarding telecare on a Hungarian sample.

Methods Quantitative survey among homeless people (n = 98) was completed in 4 shelters providing mid- and long-term accommodation in Budapest, Hungary. Attitudes regarding healthcare service accessibility and telecare were measured by a self-developed questionnaire of the research team. Telecare attitude comparison was made with data of a Hungarian weighted reference group of non-homeless persons recruited from 2 primary care units (n = 110).

Results A significant fraction of homeless people with mid- or long-term residency in homeless shelters did not oppose the use of telecare via live online video consultation and there was no difference compared to the national reference group (averages of 3.09 vs. 3.15, respectively). Results of the homeless group indicate that those more satisfied with healthcare services, in general, manifest more openness to telecare. It is clearly demonstrated by the multivariate analysis that those participants in the homeless group who had problems getting health care in the last year definitely preferred in-person doctor-patient consultations.

Conclusion Digital health technologies offer a potentially important new pathway for the prevention and treatment of chronic conditions among homeless persons. Based on the attitudes towards telecare, initiating an on-site telecare program for mid- and long-term residents of homeless shelters might enable better care continuity. Our results draw attention to the key factors including building trust in the implementation of such programs among underserved and other vulnerable patient groups.


Z Győrffy, S Békási, n szathmári-Mészáros, O Németh


The COVID-19 outbreak was formally announced as a pandemic by WHO on the 11th of March, 2020. This attracts attention to the possibilities of telemedicine again. In support of stopping the spread of the novel coronavirus infection, whilst keeping the healthcare system running and minimizing the risk of being infected, we also need to find new ways, methods, and platforms to deal with this pandemic. By providing a literature overview and sharing practical guidelines, including the special example of Hungarian teledentistry, we present both international and Hungarian initiatives to involve telemedicine on different levels of healthcare systems regarding COVID-19. Both international and national data show that telemedicine can play a major role in the triage process, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals, and management of patient pathways in a way that ensures the medical team does not come into contact with potentially infected patients. It also plays an important role in remote monitoring of medical conditions and care of patients with chronic diseases and reconnects vulnerable groups of healthcare personnel to the care system. In addition to the potential benefits of telemedicine, we must not forget the limitations of this method. However, it is important to emphasize that due to its wide availability, telemedicine services can provide sufficient flexibility for both primary and specialist care (outpatient and inpatient clinical care). For that very reason, it is an urgent need to define the national professional guidelines, legal and financing possibilities in this field in a long-term sustainable way.