Kutatási projektjeink sok esetben egyediek és hiánypótlóak a hajléktalan személyek egészségével kapcsolatban. Számunkra kiemelten fontos, hogy publikációink szabad hozzáférésűek legyenek, így minden esetben elérhető szakmai cikkeink teljes szövege is annak érdekében, hogy mindenki, akit részleteiben érdekelnek eredményeink, adaptálhassák azokat saját intézményeikre, szolgáltatásaikra. Éppen ezért cikkeinkben saját jó gyakorlatainkat is megosztjuk.
Digital health solutions could alleviate the needs of vulnerable populations in the recent period of the permacrisis, however, there are several barriers that limit their use for certain individuals. We use the four-pillar model of the novel concept of techquity to provide original evidence of the discrepancy in the willingness to try and the ability to harness healthtech in Hungary. We identified three underserved segments of society: older adults, people with long-term activity-limiting conditions, and people experiencing homelessness who could greatly benefit from digital technologies and yet use them less than the general population. We also discuss potential strategic considerations in order to promote techquity and digital inclusion among people living in vulnerable situations.
Background Digital health has expanded during the COVID-19 pandemic, while the exclusion of vulnerable populations with limited access to these technologies widens the gap to receive proper care. There is very little data available on the feasibility of telemedicine solutions regarding the chronic care of homeless persons.
Methods In our study, 75 participants experiencing homelessness were recruited from four social institutions in Budapest, Hungary. The telecare pilot service consisted of six online consultations with a physician and was available in shelters biweekly. Self-developed questionnaires were used after every online session on the originating and remote sites as well, while a follow-up study was also completed among patients after four to six months of pilot closure. Parameters as frequencies, averages, and percentage distributions were analyzed and two linear regression models were built on explaining the doctors’ and patients’ overall rating of visits.
Results During the pilot, 92.2% (n = 415) of originally planned visits were delivered and 55 clients (73.3%) attended the full program. Both the patients’ and physicians’ overall satisfaction was very high (4.52 and 4.79, respectively, on a 5-point Likert scale) and the patients’ overall rating remained similarly high during the follow-up. Comparing the first and sixth visits, physicians reported significant improvements in almost all aspects. The linear regression models proved that confidence in the patients’ assessment and diagnosis had the most prominent effect on the physicians’ overall rating, while ease of use and lack of communication gaps influenced positively the patients’ rating.
Conclusion The results suggest that telehealth services represent a promising tool to ensure better care continuity while using shelter infrastructure and on-site assistance might reduce the digital exclusion of people experiencing homelessness.
Background In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of digital technology for personal health and well-being. Previous research has revealed that these technologies might provide vulnerable populations, including those who are homeless, better access to health services and thus a greater chance of more personalized care.
Objective However, little is known about the relationship between technology and health among people experiencing homelessness in Central and Eastern Europe. This study is part of a series of studies by the Digital Health Research Group at Semmelweis University (Budapest, Hungary) in cooperation with the Hungarian Charity Service of the Order of Malta; it aims to assess the existing technological resources available for the homeless population and their health-related internet use characteristics to set the ground for potential health policy interventions, enabling better access to health services by strengthening the digital components of the existing health care system.
Methods Between April 19, 2021, and August 11, 2021, a total of 662 people from 28 institutions providing social services for people experiencing homelessness in Budapest, Hungary, were surveyed about their access to digital tools and internet use patterns. For selected questions, the responses of a representative sample of the Hungarian population were used for comparison as the reference group. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify variables affecting internet use for health-related reasons.
Results The results demonstrated a considerable level of internet use in the homeless population; 52.9% (350/662) of the respondents used the internet frequently compared with 81.3% (1220/1500) of the respondents in the reference group. Among the homeless group, 69.6% (461/662) of the respondents reported mobile phone ownership, and 39.9% (264/662) of the respondents added that it had a smartphone function. Moreover, 11.2% (70/662) of the respondents had already used a health mobile app, and 34.6% (229/662) of the respondents had used the internet for medical purposes. On the basis of these characteristics, we were able to identify a broadly defined, digitally engaged group among people experiencing homelessness (129/662, 19.5%). This subpopulation was inclined to benefit from digitalization related to their personal health. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that internet use for health reasons was more significant for younger respondents, women, those with higher levels of education, and those with no chronic conditions.
Conclusions Although compared with the general population, health-related internet use statistics are lower, our results show that the idea of involving homeless populations in the digital health ecosystem is viable, especially if barriers to access are systematically reduced. The results show that digital health services have great promise as another tool in the hands of community shelters for keeping homeless populations well ingrained in the social infrastructure as well as for disease prevention purposes.
Background With the expansion of digital health, it is imperative to consider intervention techniques in order not to be the cause of even more social health inequalities in underserved populations struggling with chronic diseases. Telemedicine solutions for homeless persons might compensate for shortcomings in access to valuable health services in different settings. The main aim of our research was to examine the attitudes and openness of homeless persons regarding telecare on a Hungarian sample.
Methods Quantitative survey among homeless people (n = 98) was completed in 4 shelters providing mid- and long-term accommodation in Budapest, Hungary. Attitudes regarding healthcare service accessibility and telecare were measured by a self-developed questionnaire of the research team. Telecare attitude comparison was made with data of a Hungarian weighted reference group of non-homeless persons recruited from 2 primary care units (n = 110).
Results A significant fraction of homeless people with mid- or long-term residency in homeless shelters did not oppose the use of telecare via live online video consultation and there was no difference compared to the national reference group (averages of 3.09 vs. 3.15, respectively). Results of the homeless group indicate that those more satisfied with healthcare services, in general, manifest more openness to telecare. It is clearly demonstrated by the multivariate analysis that those participants in the homeless group who had problems getting health care in the last year definitely preferred in-person doctor-patient consultations.
Conclusion Digital health technologies offer a potentially important new pathway for the prevention and treatment of chronic conditions among homeless persons. Based on the attitudes towards telecare, initiating an on-site telecare program for mid- and long-term residents of homeless shelters might enable better care continuity. Our results draw attention to the key factors including building trust in the implementation of such programs among underserved and other vulnerable patient groups.
A WHO által 2020. március 11-én hivatalosan is pandémiának nyilvánított COVID–19-járvány ismét felhívja a figyelmet a telemedicina lehetőségeire. Az új koronavírus-fertőzés megfékezése érdekében, az ellátórendszer működtetése során, a fertőződés kockázatának maximális csökkentése mellett új utakat, módszereket, platformokat kell találnunk. Célunk, hogy szakirodalmi összegzéssel és gyakorlati szempontú útmutatók révén, valamint a hazai telefogászat különleges példáján keresztül bemutassuk, milyen kísérletek történtek a COVID–19-járvány kapcsán a telemedicinának az ellátásba való bevonására mind a nemzetközi, mind pedig a hazai ellátórendszerek különböző szintjein. Mind a nemzetközi, mind a hazai adatok azt mutatják, hogy a telemedicina kiemelt szerepű lehet a triázs folyamatában, a fertőzöttek korai kiemelésében, diagnosztizálásában, ellátásában, betegútjának menedzselésében úgy, hogy a szakszemélyzet nem érintkezik a potenciálisan fertőzött páciensekkel. Ugyancsak fontos szerepe van a gondozott, krónikus betegséggel élő páciensek állapotának távoli monitorozásában, ellátásában és a veszélyeztetett egészségügyi dolgozói csoport ellátásba való visszakapcsolásában. A potenciális előnyök mellett nem szabad megfeledkeznünk a telemedicinális ellátás korlátairól, ugyanakkor fontos kiemelni, hogy széles hozzáférhetősége miatt a veszélyhelyzet kapcsán kellő rugalmasságot adhat mind az alapellátás, mind a szakellátás számára. Éppen ezért mielőbb szükséges a hazai szakmai irányelveket, a jogi és a finanszírozási lehetőségeket e területen hosszú távon fenntartható módon is meghatározni.